Transducer play a crucial role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process ought to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another one.
This is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is changed into an electric energy.
Types of transducer:
There are 2 varieties of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Rotary Torque Sensor is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical power itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the best types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are definitely the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is located in some materials (including quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it produces an electric powered charge and, when an electrical field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any sort of piezo mechanism can be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and for that reason are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker over a magnetically driven speaker is based on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are employed to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be based upon piezoelectrics. In this instance, the Micro Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while decreasing the input power at the same time, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is usually utilized to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which can be very frequently used for pressure sensing applications. They are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to offer position feedback or force feedback, for instance on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes with all the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not generate a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when leading edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated under the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Due to their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to provide the controller the correct information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the right amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor could even become a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any sort of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it will cause. In case these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system with a counter mass could be integrated and driven having a signal from the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel one another out as well as the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is usually utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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